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Bismarck's War: The Franco-Prussian War and the Making of Modern Europe

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Boog, Horst; Rahn, Werner; Stumpf, Reinhard & Wegner, Bernd (2001). Germany and the Second World War: Volume 6: The Global War. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-822888-2. Roskill, Stephen (1954). The War at Sea 1939–1945. History of the Second World War. Vol.I: The Defensive. Edited by J. R. M. Butler. London: HMSO. ISBN 978-0-11-630188-8. Oxford Public International Law. Archived from the original on 24 May 2021 . Retrieved 24 May 2021. The Germans also had an unexpected advantage in that Napoleon III was in constant pain from gallstones which, combined with the side-effects of the opium prescribed by his doctors, made him incapable of exercising effective command. As a result, there was no one able to impose a clear overall strategy on the quarrelling French generals. Svensk Rikskalender (in Swedish), 1881, p.378, archived from the original on 11 June 2011 , retrieved 6 January 2018– via runeberg.org

The role of Bismarck - Why unification was achieved in - BBC The role of Bismarck - Why unification was achieved in - BBC

He warned of the imminent possibility that Germany will have to fight on two fronts; he spoke of the desire for peace; then he set forth the Balkan case for war and demonstrated its futility: Staat Hannover (1865). Hof- und Staatshandbuch für das Königreich Hannover: 1865. Berenberg. p. 79. Großherzogliche Hausorden", Staatshandbuch für das Großherzogtum Sachsen / Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach, Weimar, 1869, p. 15, archived from the original on 6 December 2019 , retrieved 6 December 2019 {{ citation}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher ( link) Sheehan, James J. (1989). German History, 1770–1866 (Reprinted.). Clarendon Press. ISBN 978-0-19-820432-9.Campbell, John (1987). "Germany 1906–1922". In Sturton, Ian (ed.). Conway's All the World's Battleships: 1906 to the Present. London: Conway Maritime Press. pp.28–49. ISBN 978-0-85177-448-0.

Otto von Bismarck and the Franco-Prussian War | History of Otto von Bismarck and the Franco-Prussian War | History of

Großherzogliche Orden", Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Großherzogtum Baden, Karlsruhe, 1873, p. 61, archived from the original on 3 February 2021 , retrieved 21 November 2019 {{ citation}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher ( link) The British were unaware that the German ships had reversed positions in the Denmark Strait. Observers on Prince of Wales correctly identified the ships but failed to inform Admiral Holland. [59] Gerwarth, Robert (2007). "Inventing the Iron Chancellor". History Today. 57 (6): 43–49. , popular history Blair, Clay (1998). Hitler's U-Boat War: The Hunters 1939–1942. Vol.1. Cassell. ISBN 0-304-35260-8. Steenson, Gary P. (1981) 'Not One Man, Not One Penny': German Social Democracy, 1863–1914 Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. pp. 228–29. ISBN 0-8229-5329-3Ludwig, Emil (1927). Wilhelm Hohenzollern: The last of the Kaisers. Trans. Ethel Colburn Mayne. New York: Kessinger Publishing, LLC. ISBN 978-0-7661-4341-8. [ permanent dead link] Kersbergen, Kees van; Vis, Barbara (2013). Comparative Welfare State Politics: Development, Opportunities, and Reform. Cambridge UP. p.38. ISBN 978-1-107-65247-7. Archived from the original on 22 April 2016 . Retrieved 19 April 2016. Catalogue of place names in northern East Greenland". Geological Survey of Denmark. Archived from the original on 8 July 2019 . Retrieved 7 October 2019. Firth, S. G. (1972). "The New Guinea Company, 1885–1899: A case of unprofitable imperialism". Historical Studies. 15 (59): 361–77. doi: 10.1080/10314617208595478. Ku, Yangmo (2010). "The Politics of Historical Memory in Germany: Brandt's Ostpolitik, the German-Polish History Textbook Commission, and Conservative Reaction". Journal of Educational Media, Memory, and Society. 2 (2): 75–92. doi: 10.3167/jemms.2010.020206.

Bismarck’s War’ Review: A Fast But Fateful Fight - WSJ ‘Bismarck’s War’ Review: A Fast But Fateful Fight - WSJ

Campbell, John (1985). Naval Weapons of World War II. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 978-0-87021-459-2. Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach: Grand Cross of the White Falcon, 3 September 1866; [179] in Brilliants, 1885 [180] The Prussian victory in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 enabled him to create the North German Confederation which excluded Austria from the federation’s affairs and ended the previous German Confederation. Although the six-month Franco-Prussian War was among the shortest of all major European conflicts, it brought Dietrich and his comrades sights that robbed them of any temptation to triumphalism. The war’s combination of lethal new weapons (breechloading rifles, machine guns, steel cannon) and huge armies left mountains of dead and hordes of permanently mutilated wounded: In the murderous engagement at Gravelotte in August 1870, the Prussians lost twice as many men as they had during the entire Austro-Prussian War of 1866.Rohwer, J. (2005). Chronology of the War at Sea 1939–1945. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-59114-119-8. The efficient German mobilisation, which succeeded in moving 384,000 men with their horses and artillery to their assembly areas within two weeks, is contrasted with the chaotic French system, which left tens of thousands of reservists scattered across France vainly trying to reach their units. Moltke had a two-to-one overall numerical superiority, but at key points his forces outnumbered Napoleon’s armies by an overwhelming four to one. A Veteran Diplomat (27 September 1908). "The "Mediatized" – or the "High Nobility" of Europe; Consisting of Something Like Fifty families Which Enjoyed Petty Sovereignty Before the Holy Roman Empire's Overthrow, They Still Exercise Certain Special Privileges Mixed with Unusual Restrictions". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014 . Retrieved 11 February 2017. The Second Empire collapsed as soon as news of the surrender of Sedan reached Paris. On 4 September, a provisional government calling itself the Government of National Defence proclaimed the formation of the Third Republic. Chrastil explains how the seemingly decisive German victory at Sedan failed to end the war, as there was no legitimate French authority with which to negotiate a peace treaty. The new French republican government had no electoral mandate, Napoleon III was a prisoner, and the Empress Eugénie was in exile in England. Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Königreichs Bayern (in German). Munich: Königl. Oberpostamt. 1867. p.11. Archived from the original on 12 July 2021 . Retrieved 15 July 2019.

‘Bismarck’s War’ by Rachel Chrastil review | History Today

Stern, Fritz (2013). Gold and Iron. Knopf Doubleday Publishing. p.139. ISBN 978-0-307-82986-3. Archived from the original on 15 February 2017 . Retrieved 16 October 2016.Victory in the Franco-Prussian War proved the capstone of the nationalist issue, rallying the other German states into unity. Ballard, Robert D. (2008). Archaeological Oceanography. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-12940-2. Wetzel, David (2012). A Duel of Nations: Germany, France, and the Diplomacy of the War of 1870–1871. University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 978-0-299-29134-1. Well before this, it was apparent that a German victory was only a matter of time – and that the balance of power in Europe had shifted dramatically. Germany’s new ‘Great Power’ status was emphasised by the proclamation of Wilhelm I of Prussia as Kaiser Wilhelm I of the new Deutsches Kaiserreich (German Empire) in the Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles on 18 January 1871.

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